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Classification of Chinese Jade
 
There are two types of Jade. One is nephrite (nephrite originated from Greece, and it means kidney because it was believed that if one hangs the nephrite around the waist it can heal kidney diseases ) and the other is jadeite.

There are five classes of Chinese nephrite: Lantian Jade, Nanyang Jade, Jiouquan Jade, Youyan Jade, Hetian Jade. The density of nephrite is from 2.44 to 3.18 g/cm3.

1. Lantian Jade: It is originated from Lantian Town, Shanxi province. It has yellow, light green color, not transparent, its hardness is around 4, it is a variety of amphibole minerals, and its density is about 2.44 to 3.18 g/cm3.


2. Nanyang Jade: It is also called “Dushan Jade”. It is originated from Nanyang City, Henan province. It has a monoclinic crystal, it has fine texture, pure, glass-like lustrous radiant, it is transparent or semi-transparent, it has a hardness of 5.5 to 6.5, it has various colors, and its density is 2.44 to 3.18 g/cm3.

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3. Jiouquan Jade: It is originated from Qilian Mountain, Ganshu province. It is a variety of amphibole minerals, it is semi-transparent, it is typically exhibit green color, it has uniformly distributed black dots, its hardness is 4.5 to 5, and its density is 2.44 to 3.18 g/cm3.4. Youyan Jade: It is originated form Youyan town, Liaoning province. It is a variety of serpentine jade, its chemical fomula is Mg6[Si4010](OH)8, it is semi-transparent, it has wax-like lustrous after polishing, its hardness is 3.5 to 5.5, its density is 2.44 to 3.18 g/cm3, and its reflective index is 1.555 to 1.573.

4.Xiuyan Jade: It is originated form Youyan town, Liaoning province. It is a variety of serpentine jade, its chemical fomula is Mg6[Si4010](OH)8, it is semi-transparent, it has wax-like lustrous after polishing, its hardness is 3.5 to 5.5, its density is 2.44 to 3.18 g/cm3, and its reflective index is 1.555 to 1.573.

5. Hetian Jade: Hetian Jade is produced in Xinjiang province, from Shache to Tashenku'ergan and from Hetian to Yuzhen which are located in the north of the 1600-kilometer long Kulun Mountain. There are 9 originating areas for Hetian Jade. Hetian Jade is made of nephrite, a silicate of calcium and magnesium. It is a fibrous variety of the amphibole mineral series actinolite to tremolite, usually closer to actinolite. Its chmical formula is Ca2(Mg, Fe2+)5(Si4011)2(OH)2. It has a monoclinic crystal structure. It has green, black, brown, and beige colors. The Hetian jade is opaque, and has lustrous wax-like appearance after polishing. It has a hardness between 5.5 to 6.5. Its refractive index is 1.606 - 1.632, and density is 2.9 -3.1 g/cm3.


The emerald is a natrium and aluminum silicate; being of a fibrous, compact crystal compound, It belonged to jadeite. Its molecular formula is NaAl[Si2O6]. The jadeite is one of the most familar rare produced mineral diopside category in the nature. It belonged to monocline crystal category. The crystal shape is puncheon shape, fibrous structure minicrystal compound. Its color is various. The major color is green, red, purple, blue, yellow, gray, black and achromatism, etc. According to the green hue, brightness and saturation, apple green, onions heart green, spinage green, oil green, gray green, etc. From glass luster to axunge luster; translulence to opacity. Its refraction rate is between 1.16-1.68. Double refractive index is between 0.012-0.020. No multicolor character. The rigidity is between 6.5-7 degree. Density is between 3.25-3.4g/cm3. The toughness is great strong.

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